DISTRIBUSI DANF AKTOR RESIKO LINGKUNGAN PENULARAN LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KABUPATEN DEMAK, JAWA TENGAH

Farida D.H., Ristiyanto Ristiyanto, B. Yuliadi, Sukarno Sukarno, Muhidin Muhidin

DISTRIBUSI DANF AKTOR RESIKO LINGKUNGAN PENULARAN LEPTOSPIROSIS DI KABUPATEN DEMAK, JAWA TENGAH

Abstract


The studyofdistribution and risk factorsofleptospirosis was conductedin Bonang Sub district,
Demak Regency in May - July 2006. This study aimed to discover the distribution and risk factorsof
leptospirosis incidence using cross sectional approach. The leptospirosis cases were determinedby
peripherbloodtest using leptotek lateral flow, while leptotek dri-dotwasusedto test rodent blood.
Thedistributionsofcases andleptospires reservoirwereanalyzedby amappingprogramGISand the
characteristic ofleptospirosis cases were identified using questionnaire. The result showed that
leptospirosis cases spread randomly along Tuntang Lama River and cored in Bonang sub district
(Tridonorejo and Gebang villages). The distance betweenleptospires buffer zone and river was about
< 50 meters (21 cases), 50 - 100 meters (8cases) and 100 meters(4 cases). The leptospirosis
incidence more prevalent in man (74,8%) than woman (25,2%>). The leptospirosis cases were 15 years
old or more (87,4%), their occupationwere farmer orfisherman (52,6%), housewife(36,2%) and
seller (20%). Their house were easy enteredby rats 74,6% (RR; 23,6-33,2).Thepeoplewho got
leptospires common using water from the river for their daily activities 83,2% (RR; 15,4-17,6) and
they have not any cattle 82,5%)(RR; 1,6-4,7). During the survey was found 57 rats, such asRattus
tanezumi 36 rats,Norwayrats, R. norvegicus21 rats and theinsectivore Suncusmurinus15 rats. In
addition,R.tanezumi andR. norvegicuswere foundinfected byleptospires and they wereestimated
asleptospirosisreservoir.
Keywords:leptospirosis, DemakRegency,epidemiology,reservoir.
Abstrak
Studidistribusi dan faktor risiko lingkungan leptospirosis telah dilakukandi KecamatanBonang,
KabupatenDemak,padabulanMei- Juli2006.Tujuanpenelitianadalahmengetahuipenyebarandan
faktor risiko lingkungan kejadian leptospirosis di daerah penelitian. Penelitian menggunakan
rancangan cross sectional. Penentuan kasus leptospirosis dengan pemeriksaan darah tepi
menggunakanleptotek latteral flow, sedangkanuntuktikus menggunakanleptotek dridot.Distribusi
kasusdan reservoir leptospirosis dianalisisdenganpemanfaatanprogrampemetaan. Karakteristik
kasus leptospirosis dikajidenganmenggunakankuesionerterstruktur. Hasilpenelitianmenunjukan
bahwaleptospirosis tersebar secara random di sepanjangtepi sungai TuntangLamadanterfokus di
KecamatanBonang (DesaTridonoredjo,danGebang).Buffer Zonekasus leptospirosis dansungai
berjarak < 50 m (21 kasus), 50 - 100 m (8 kasus) dan > 100 m (4 kasus). Kasus leptospirosis berjenis
kelamin laki-laki (74,8%) lebih banyak daripada perempuan (25,2%). Kelompokumur kasus
leptospirosis >15tahun (87,4%), pekerjaan petani/nelayan 52,6%, ibu rumah tangga 36,2% dan
pedagang 20%. Kasus leptospirosis pada umumnya rumah tidak rapat tikus 74,6% (23,6 - 33,2) dan
memanfaatkan air sungai di depan rumahnya83,2%>(RR ; 15,4 - 17,6), dan tidak mempunyai hewan
ternak 82,5% (RR; 1,6 - 4,7). Selama survei ditemukan 57 ekor tikus, meliputi tikus rumah Rattus
tanezumi sebanyak 36 ekor, tikus gotR. norvegicus2\ekor, dan cecurutSuncusmurinus(cecurut rumah) sebanyak 15 ekor.R.tanezumi (6,82% dari 36 ekor tikus) dan tikus gotR. norvegicus(3,6%>
dari21ekortikus)terinfeksibakteriLeptospira.
Katakunci;leptospirosis, Demak,Epidemiologi,Reservoir

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