Analisis Spasial Kerentanan Wilayah Terhadap Kejadian Demam Berdarah Dengue di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Umbulharjo Kota Yogyakarta Tahun 2013

Budi Setiawan, FX Supardi, Victorius K Bush Bani

Abstract


Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a public health problem in the world, particularly in developing countries. Five Hundred Thousand cases of DHF were reported every year in hospitals with 22.000 deaths because of DHF (CFR=4.4%). From January to March 2013, 85 cases of DHF were reported in Umbulharjo Health Center. The objective of this study was to know the area vulnerability to DHF and to identify the relationship between rainfall, population density, HI, BI, MI, and DHF cases. This study was an analytic observational study with a cross-sectional design. GIS was used to identify DHF cases, the presence of Aedes larva, and area vulnerability to DHF. Therefore, the environmental condition which influenced DHF cases and area vulnerability to DHF can be explained visually. Chi-square analysis was used for bivariate analysis. Total of 96 respondents was selected as samples. Rainfall and MI were related to DHF cases (p-value < 0.05), however HI, BI, and population density were not related. All four villages in Umbulharjo Health Center were vulnerable to DHF and have a high endemic vulnerability because DHF cases were reported every year. Many mosquito's breeding places were found during rainfall season because of the lack of environmental hygiene of the community

 

Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) merupakan masalah kesehatan di dunia, terutama di negara berkembang. Lima ratus ribu kasus DBD memerlukan perawatan di rumah sakit dengan 22.000 kasus kematian  (CFR : 4,4 %). Dari Januari hingga Maret 2013, telah terjadi 85 kasus DBD di wilayah Puskesmas Umbulharjo. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui tingkat kerawanan wilayah terhadap kejadian DBD, hubungan curah hujan, kepadatan penduduk, HI, BI dan MI dengan kejadian DBD. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross-sectional. Penggunaan SIG dilakukan untuk identifikasi kejadian DBD, keberadaan larva Aedes, serta tingkat kerawanan wilayah terhadap kejadian DBD. Sehingga, dapat dijelaskan secara visual mengenai kondisi lingkungan yang mempengaruhi kejadian DBD serta wilayah rentan kejadian DBD. Analisis univariat dan bivariat dilakukan untuk mengetahui kebermaknaan secara statistik menggunakan uji chi square. Sampel penelitian 96 responden. Variabel yang secara statistik berhubungan dengan kejadian DBD yaitu MI dan curah hujan (p-value < 0,05) sedangkan variabel HI, BI, dan kepadatan penduduk tidak bermakna (p-value > 0,05). Seluruh wilayah kerja Puskesmas Umbulharjo yang terdiri dari empat kelurahan rentan terhadap DBD dan memiliki tingkat kerawanan endemis tinggi karena setiap tahun selalu terjadi kasus DBD. Tingginya curah hujan menunjukkan peningkatan kejadian DBD. Saat curah hujan tinggi, kurang perhatian masyarakat terhadap banyaknya disposable site menyebabkan terbentuknya breeding places bagi vektor DBD.

 


Keywords


Spatial Analysis; Vulnerability Area; DHF; Maya Index

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