PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETANOL BUNGA CENGKEH (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIMALARIA ARTEMISININ PADA Plasmodium falciparum Effect of ethanolic extract of clove (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) as anti-malaria activity on Plasmodium falciparum

Faizal Hermanto, Maria Immaculata Iwo, Puji BS Asih

PENGARUH EKSTRAK ETANOL BUNGA CENGKEH (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIMALARIA ARTEMISININ PADA Plasmodium falciparum Effect of ethanolic extract of clove (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) as anti-malaria activity on Plasmodium falciparum

Abstract


ABSTRACTMalaria is still one of the major health problems in Indonesia. The current malaria treatment is using artemisinincombination with other antimalarials drug (Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy). The main problem of the use of artemisininbecause it is generating free radicals, which are not only toxic to P. falciparum but also toxicto the host. To minimize the effects of free radicals is by takes an antioxidant, that can be derived from clove(Eugenia caryophylata Thunb). This study aims to examine the effects of the ethanol extract of clove (EEBC) asantioxidants in artemisinin treatment. Active component in clove was extracted by reflux using ethanol 96%(v/v). In this study, P. falciparum strain 3D7 was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing red blood cells, HEPESbuffer, serum AB and NaHCO3 withTrager and Jensen techniques. The results of the examination on oxidant statusshowed that levels of MDA in the culture of P. falciparum were incubated with combination ofartemisinin andEEBC were significantly decreased (1.778 ± 0.07 nM / ml) ( p < 0.05 ) compared to controls without EEBC (2.026± 0.47 nM / mL). In the other side, GSH levels were significantly increased in the same culture (1.1318 ± 0.07 mg/ml) (p < 0.05) compared to controls without EEBC (0.2496 ± 0.01 mg/mL). It was concluded that ethanol extractof clove can reduce free radicals whis are formed as a result of the artemisinin work but did not affect the activityof artemisinin as antimalarial.Keywords: Eugenia caryophylata Thunb, Plasmodium falciparum, artemisinin, GSH, MDA

 

ABSTRAKMalaria masih merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan utama di Indonesia. Pengobatan malaria saat inimenggunakan kombinasi artemisinin dengan antimalaria lain (Artemisinin Based Combination Therapy).Masalah utama penggunaan artemisinin adalah radikal bebas yang dihasilkan, yang tidak hanya toksik padaP. falciparum tetapi juga toksik terhadap inang. Untuk mengatasi dampak radikal bebas diperlukan suatuantioksidan, seperti yang dapat diperoleh dari bunga cengkeh (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb). Penelitianini bertujuan menguji efek ekstrak etanol bunga cengkeh (EEBC) sebagai antioksidan dalam terapi denganartemisinin. Komponen aktif dalam bunga cengkeh diekstraksi dengan cara refluk menggunakan etanol 96%(v/v). Dalam penelitian ini P. falciparum galur 3D7 dikultur dalam Medium RPMI 1640 yang mengandung seldarah merah, dapar HEPES, serum AB dan NaHCO3 sesuai teknik Trager dan Jensen. Hasil menunjukan padapemeriksaan status oksidan, kadar MDA pada kultur P. falciparum yang diinkubasi dengan kombinasi EEBC danartemisinin menurun (1,778±0,07 nM/ml) secara bermakna (p<0,05) dibandingkan terhadap kontrol tanpaEEBC (2,026±0,47 nM/ml). Hasil sebaliknya, kadar GSH pada kultur yang sama meningkat (1,1318±0,07 μg/ml) secara bermakna (p<0,05) dibandingkan terhadap kontrol tanpa EEBC (0,2496±0,01 μg/ml). Berdasarkanhasil penelitian ini, ekstrak etanol bunga cengkeh dapat meredam radikal bebas yang terbentuk akibat kerjaartemisinin tetapi tidak mempengaruhi aktivitas antimalaria falciparum artemisinin.


Keywords


Eugenia caryophylata Thunb, Plasmodium falciparum, artemisinin, GSH, MDA

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Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia (Journal of  Indonesian Medicinal Plant, p-ISSN : 1979-892X, e-ISSN : 2354-8797) is published by Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional (B2P2TOOT) Tawangmangu.

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