Resistensi Pinjal Tikus (Xenopsylla cheopis) Terhadap Insektisida Dalam Penanggulangan Penyakit Pes

Dyah Mahendrasari Sukendra

Abstract


Abstract

Plague is one of zoonotic disease. Plague caused by an enterobacteriae Yersinia pestis, transmitted to human by fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) bite. Plague were included of re-emerging disease, a disease that can emerge anytime and potential being an outbreak, it also included of Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). The main cause of re-emerging disease of vector borne disease possible directly caused by insecticide resistance. Bendiocarb, carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, diflubenzuron, and fenitrothion are insecticides which use to control fleas. Insecticide resistance were not give a contribution to an emerge of any diseases, but possible to pursue disease vector control program. There were four provinces in Indonesia being an area of plague monitoring. Disease control carried out by reducing population of fleas. Yersinia pestis using rats as its host and human could be infected by flea bites. An outbreak of plague was initiated by an epizootie on rats. Reducing fleas population and diminishing flea bites were the goals of fleas control, also the plague transmission from rodents to others or human can be blocked. So, controlling fleas population was the main vector control program to overcome plague infection.

Keywords : Xenopsylla cheopis, Yersinia pestis, rat, resistance.


Abstrak

Penyakit pes merupakan salah satu penyakit zoonosis, disebabkan oleh enterobakteria Yersinia pestis, dapat menular ke manusia melalui gigitan pinjal (Xenopsylla cheopis). Pes termasuk penyakit re-emerging diseases, yaitu penyakit yang dapat sewaktu-waktu muncul kembali sehingga berpotensi untuk menimbulkan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB) dan termasuk dalam Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) atau Kedaruratan Kesehatan yang meresahkan dunia. Penyebab utama re-emergence of vector borne disease diperkirakan terjadi akibat resistensi insektisida. Resistensi tidak berkontribusi terhadap terjangkitnya suatu penyakit, tetapi dimungkinkan menyebabkan hambatan pada program pengendalian penyakit. Insektisida yang dipergunakan untuk pengendalian pinjal antara lain adalah bendiocarb, carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, diflubenzuron, dan fenitrothion. Terdapat empat wilayah Provinsi di Indonesia yang menjadi daerah pengawasan pes. Penanggulangan penyakit diupayakan dengan melakukan pengendalian terhadap pinjal. Yersinia pestis menggunakan tikus sebagai inang. Apabila seekor tikus menderita pes, manusiapun dapat terinfeksi oleh gigitan pinjal. Tujuan utama pengendalian pinjal adalah menurunkan populasi pinjal dan mengurangi kontak gigitan pinjal. Upaya pengendalian dilakukan untuk mencegah tejadinya penularan pes dari rodensia satu ke rodensia lain atau dari rodensia ke manusia, sehingga pengendalian pinjal merupakan suatu program prioritas utama dalam penanggulangan penularan pes.

Kata Kunci: Xenopsylla cheopis, Yersinia pestis, tikus, resistensi


Keywords


Xenopsylla cheopis, Yersinia pestis, rat, resistance.

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