Strategi Pengendalian Hospes Perantara Schistosomiasis

Anis Nurwidayati

Abstract


Abstract

Schistosomiasis is snails intermediated disease that infects humans and other mammals. Schistosomiasis distributed in various parts of Asia, Africa and America. Schistosomiasis in Indonesia is only found in the highlands of Napu, Lindu and Bada, Central Sulawesi. Intermediate snail of schistosomiasis in Indonesia is Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. Schistosomiasis control strategies in many countries are generally conducted by controlling intermediate snail using mechanic ways, molluscicide, and biological control. Development of vaccines and better diagnostic techniques are expected to help reduce infection in humans. Some basic research about molecular aspect of schistosomiasis have been conducted to understand the interactions between snails and parasites, as well as the identification of genes that are expected to lead the snail resistant to infection.

Key words: Schistosomiasis, snail, molluscicides


Abstrak

Schistosomiasis merupakan salah satu penyakit yang diperantarai oleh keong yang menginfeksi manusia dan hewan mamalia lain. Schistosomiasis tersebar di berbagai wilayah kawasan Asia, Afrika dan Amerika. Schistosomiasis di Indonesia hanya ditemukan di dataran tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, Sulawesi Tengah. Keong perantara schistosomiasis di Indonesia adalah Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. Strategi pengendalian schistosomiasis di berbagai negara pada umumnya dilakukan dengan pengendalian keong perantaranya, baik secara mekanik, kimia dan biologi. Pengembangan vaksin dan teknik diagnosis yang lebih baik diharapkan dapat membantu pengurangan infeksi pada manusia. Beberapa penelitian dasar bidang molekuler telah dilakukan untuk memahami interaksi antara keong dan parasit, serta identifikasi gen yang diharapkan dapat menyebabkan keong resisten terhadap parasit.

Kata kunci: Schistosomiasis, keong, moluskisida


Keywords


Schistosomiasis, snail, molluscicides

References


Engels D L, Chitsulo A, Montresor and L Savioli. The global epidemiological situation of schistosomiasis and new approaches to control and research. Acta Trop. 2002; 82: 139-146.

SPIRAKEL, Vol.7 No.2, Desember 2015: 38-45 Strategi Pengendalian Hospes.

World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis Fact Sheet. Geneva. 2010. Available at: http://www.who.int.

Utzinger J, SH Xiao, J Keiser, Z J. Chen and M Tanner. Current progress in development and use of artemether for chemoprophylaxis of major human Schistosoma parasites. Curr. Med. Chem. 2001; 8: 1841-1860.

Hadidjaja P. Schistosomiasis di Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. Jakarta: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia. 1985.

Direktorat Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang. Petunjuk Teknis Pemberantasan Schistosomiasis. Jakarta. 2015.

Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Prevalensi Schistosomiasis di Sulawesi Tengah. Program Pemberantasan Schistosomiasis. Palu. 2012.

Sudomo M. Penyakit parasitik yang kurang diperhatikan di Indonesia. In: Orasi Pengukuhan Profesor Riset Bidang Entomologi dan Moluska. Badan Litbangkes. Jakarta, 2008; 1–61.

Madsen, H. The effect of sodium chloride concentration on growth and egg laying of Helisoma duryi, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncates. J. Moll. Stud. 1990;56:181-7.

Brown, D. Freshwater snails of Africa and their medical importance. 2nd Edn. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. 1994.

Pitchford RJ. Temperature and schistosome distribution in south Africa. South African J.Sci. 1981; 77: 252-67.

Coelho JR and Bezerra FS. The effect of temperature change on the infection rate of Biomphalaria glabrata with Schistosoma mansoni. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006; 101: 223-4.

Yang GJ, Utzinger J, Sun LP, Hong QB, Vounatsou P, Tanner M and Zhou XN. Effect of temperature on the development of Schistosoma japonicum within Oncomelania hupensis, and hibernation of O.hupensis. Parasitol. Res. 2007; 100: 695-700.

Thomas JD. An evaluation of the interaction between freshwater pulmonate snail hosts of human schistosomes and macrophytes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 1987; 315: 75-125.

Ojewole JAO. Indigenous plants and Schistosomiasis control in South Africa: molluscicidal activity of some zulu medicinal plants. Boletin Latino americano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas. 2004; 3(2): 8-22.

Lemma A, Yau P. Studies on the molluscicidal properties of Endod (Phytolacca dodecandra). II: Comparative toxicity of various molluscicides to fish and snails. Ethiop. Med. J. 1974; 12:109-13.

Rawi SM, Al-Hazmi, Nassr Mal MSF. Comparative Study Of The molluscicidal activity of some plant extracts on the snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, Biomphalaria alexandrina. International Journal of Zoological Research. 2011;7(2):169-89.

Bakry FA. Use of some plant extracts to control Biomphalaria alexandrina snails with emphasis on some biological effects. World Applied Science Journal. 2009;3 (1):1335-45.

Nurwidayati A, Veridiana NN, Octaviani, Yudith L. Efektivitas ekstrak biji jarak merah (Jatropha gossypiifolia L), jarak pagar (J.curcas), dan jarak kastror (Riccinus communis) famili Euphorbiaceae terhadap hospes perantara Schistosomiasis, keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. Balaba. 2014; 10(1).

Devappa RK, Rajesh SK, Kumar V, Makkar HPS, Becker K. Activities of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in various bioassays. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2011; 11(02):68-73. Doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.11.002.

Rug M, Ruppei A. Toxic activities of the plant Jatropha curcas against intermediate snail hosts and larvae of schistosomes. Trop. Med. Intern. Hlth. 2000; 5: 423-30.

Liu SY, Sporer F, Wink M, Jourdane J, Henning R, Li YL, Ruppei, A. Anthraquinones in Rheum palmatum and Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae), and phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) with molluscicidal activity against the schistosome vector snails Oncomelania, Biomphalaria, and Bulinus. Trop. Med. Int. Health. 1997; 2: 179-88.

Chimbari MJ, Ndela B. A preliminary assessment of the potential of the muschovy duck (Cairina maschata) as a biocontrol agent of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails. Journal of Parasitology Research. 2012. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/353768.

Souza. Molluscicide control of snail vectors of Schistosomiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1995; 90(2):165-8. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/mioc/v90n2/vol90%28f2%29_029-032.pdf.

Pointier JP and Jourdane J. Biological control of the snail hosts of schistosomiasis in areas of low transmission: the example of the Carribean area. Acta Tropica. 2000; 77: 53-60.

Evers BN, Masden H, McKaye KM and Stauffer JR. The schistosome intermediate host, Bulinus nyassanus, is a preferred food for the cichlid fish, Trematocranus placodon, at Cape Maclear, Lake Malawi. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 2006; 100:75-85.

Kloos H, Pasoos LK, Lo Verde P, Oliveira RC and Gazzinelli A. Distribution and Schistosoma mansoni infection of Biomphalaria glabrata in different habitats in a rural area in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Environmental and epidemiological aspects. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2004; 99:673-81


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



SPIRAKEL (p-ISSN: 2086-1346, e-ISSN: 2354-8819) is published by Loka Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang Baturaja, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia

Indexing:

Visitor Number : 

free
web stats
View My Stats

Lisensi Creative Commons
This work is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 Internasional License