Deteksi Leptospira Patogen Pada Tersangka Penderita Leptospirosis Di Kabupaten Ponorogo

Dyah Widiastuti, Anggun Paramita Djati

Abstract


Abstract

Up to March 2012, there were increasing leptospirosis cases in Ponorogo. A total of 11 cases of leptospirosis were reported by the Ponorogo District Health Center. This study aims to detect pathogenic Leptospira bacteria using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in suspected leptospirosis in Ponorogo. Collection of blood samples carried out by the local health care medical personnel (doctor, midwife or nurse) was accompanied by a team of researchers. Subjects were people with fever (temperature >380C) or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, and rash conjunctivitis. Blood and urine samples were taken purposively. Active case detection was also conducted in communities around the previous patients who had a history of infection risk and relationship of leptospirosis. Further blood samples examined by two different methods, Lepto Tek Lateral Flow and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Ninety blood and urine samples was collected. Four samples were positive for pathogenic Leptospira DNA consisted of two samples of blood (whole blood) and two samples of urine. PCR-positive samples in the blood has negative results of Lepto Tek examination. While the PCR-positive samples in the urine, Lepto Tek was positive. Lepto tek showed lower sensitivity in early detection of leptospirosis. Examination of blood and urine samples using PCR can support the early discovery of leptospirosis cases.

Keywords: Leptospirosis, Ponorogo, PCR


Abstrak

Sampai dengan bulan Maret 2012 terjadi peningkatan kasus leptospirosis di Ponorogo. Sebanyak 11 kasus leptospirosis dilaporkan oleh Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Ponorogo. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi bakteri Leptospira patogen menggunakan teknik Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) pada tersangka penderita leptospirosis di Kabupaten Ponorogo. Pengumpulan sampel darah dilakukan oleh tenaga medis Puskesmas setempat (dokter, bidan atau perawat) didampingi oleh tim peneliti terhadap penduduk yang mengalami demam (suhu badan > 380C) atau demam disertai sakit kepala, nyeri otot, kongjungtivitis dan ruam. Selain sampel darah, diambil pula sampel urin. Pencarian kasus juga dilakukan pada masyarakat di sekitar penderita sebelumnya yang memiliki risiko dan hubungan riwayat penularan leptopsirosis. Selanjutnya sampel darah diperiksa dengan dua metode berbeda yaitu menggunakan Lepto Tek Lateral Flow dan metode Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Hasil pengumpulan sampel diperoleh 90 sampel darah dan 90 sampel urin. Ditemukan 4 sampel yang positif mengandung DNA Leptospira patogen, dua sampel dari darah (whole blood) dan dua sampel dari urin. Sampel yang menunjukkan hasil positif pemeriksaan PCR pada darah, namun hasil pemeriksaan Lepto Tek-nya negatif, sedangkan sampel positif pemeriksaan PCR pada urin, hasil Lepto Tek-nya positif. Deteksi dini Leptospirosis menggunakan Lepto Tek menunjukkan sensitivitas rendah. Pemeriksaan sampel darah dan urin menggunakan metode PCR dapat mendukung upaya penemuan kasus leptospirosis sejak dini. Kata

Kunci: Leptospirosis, Ponorogo, PCR

 


Keywords


Leptospirosis, Ponorogo, PCR

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