FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENYIMPANGAN POSITIF (POSITIVE DEVIANCE) STATUS GIZI BALITA PADA KELUARGA MISKIN DI KABUPATEN GIZI-KURANG RENDAH DAN TINGGI DI PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN (FACTORS OF POSITIVE DEVIANCE IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVES AMONG POOR FAMILY

Erna Luciasari, Yurista Permanasari, Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Background: The amount of poor population in Jeneponto & Selayar districts, South Sulawesi, were relatively similar and higher than the national average. However, Janeponto had high prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (28%), whereas Selayar had low prevalence in malnutrition among children under five (11,31%). Objective: This research aims to measure positive deviance which affects nutrition status in two different districts with relative-similar poverty level as well as different nutrition deficiency prevalence. Method: This research is an advance analysis of Riskesdas 2007 data which targeted poor family with under-five-children as sample. As the first step, data verification is conducted to make sure data completeness. Analysis is done by using statistical description, whereas Chi square test is used to analyzing nutrition-status-factors difference between two districts. Result: Under-five-children nutrition status is highly affected by family socio-economy status which covers education level of parents, income, total of family member, access to clean water, environment hygiene and sanitation, and family morbidity. Conclusion: Positive deviation factor of less malnutrition nutritional status than high malnutrition in poor areas was the high parental education, the small number of household members, and ease of access to water.

 

Keywords: positive deviance, nutritional status, under-fives, poor family

 

ABSTRAK

Latar Belakang: Penduduk miskin di Kabupaten Jeneponto dan Selayar, Sulawesi Selatan, jumlahnya relatif sama dan lebih tinggi dari angka nasional. Namun, Jeneponto memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang tinggi (28%), sedangkan Selayar memiliki prevalensi balita gizi-kurang yang rendah (11,3%). Tujuan: Menentukan faktor-faktor penyimpangan positif yang memengaruhi status gizi di dua kabupaten dengan tingkat kemiskinan relatif sama tetapi berprevalensi gizi kurang berbeda. Metode: Analisis lanjut data Riskesdas 2007 ini mengambil sampel keluarga miskin yang memiliki balita. Pada tahap awal, dilakukan verifikasi kelengkapan variabel yang diperlukan. Analisis statistik dilakukan secara deskriptif, sedangkan untuk mengetahui perbedaan faktor determinan status gizi di kedua kabupaten dilakukan uji Chi Square. Hasil: Status gizi balita sangat ditentukan oleh faktor sosial dan ekonomi keluarga meliputi pendidikan kepala keluarga (KK) dan ibu, penghasilan KK, jumlah anggota rumah tangga, akses air bersih, kebersihan dan sanitasi lingkungan serta morbiditas keluarga. Kesimpulan: Faktor penyimpangan positif kejadian status gizi-kurang rendah dibandingkan dengan status gizi-kurang tinggi di daerah miskin adalah tingginya pendidikan orang tua, sedikitnya jumlah anggota rumah tangga, dan kemudahan akses air. Penel Gizi Makan 2011, 34(2): 114-122]

Kata Kunci: penyimpangan positif, status gizi, balita, keluarga miskin

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Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan ( ISSN: 0125-9717. EISSN: 2338-8358) is published by National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia
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