PROFIL KONSUMSI SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI, STATUS GIZI, KEBIASAAN MEROKOK DAN SANITASI LINGKUNGAN PADA DAERAH DENGAN TB-PARU TINGGI DI INDONESIA (PROFILE OF NATURAL SOURCE ANTIOXIDANTS CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL STATUS, SMOKING HABIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITA

Budi Setyawati, Nelis Imanningsih, Fitrah Ernawati

PROFIL KONSUMSI SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI, STATUS GIZI, KEBIASAAN MEROKOK DAN SANITASI LINGKUNGAN PADA DAERAH DENGAN TB-PARU TINGGI DI INDONESIA (PROFILE OF NATURAL SOURCE ANTIOXIDANTS CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL STATUS, SMOKING HABIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITA

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Indonesia is at third rank as country having a large number of people with pulmonary-tuberculosis disease after India and China. Low nutritional status, unhealthy lifestyle, poor living condition, and low consumption of natural sources of antioxidant (fruits, vegetables and herbs) can decrease immunity sistem and increase the risk of pulmonary-tuberculosis (pulmonary-TB) infection. The study aimed to discribe the profile of nutritional status, consumption of antioxidant sources, smoking habit, house condition and environmental sanitation in areas with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Analitic observational study with cross sectional design. The sample is Riskesdas 2010 sample, age of sample is 15 years old and above and living in the area with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Variable being studied are the profile of pulmonary-TB status, sample characteristics (age, sex, occupation and education); nutritional status; the consumption of antioxidant sources (fruits, vegetables and herbs); smoking habit (status, first started smoking, dan smoking duration) and practices related to prevention of pulmonary-TB disease; house and environmental sanitation conditions. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are found in male, low education, productive age dan low nutritional status samples. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are also found in smokers that have started smoking in early age (<10 years old) and have smoked in long duration (31-40 years). A slight larger proportion of pulmonary-TB is found in samples that consume fruit-vegetable less than 5 servings/day. The higher proportion of behaviour that prevent pulmonary-TB, healthy house and environment is found in non pulmonary-TB samples. To cut down the number of pulmonary-TB suferer, efforts should be focused to the improving nutritional status, house condition and environtment sanitation, reducing the number of early ages smokers and increasing the consumption of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables.

Keywords: pulmonary-TB, antioxidants, nutritional status, smoking habit, sanitation

ABSTRAK

Indonesia peringkat ketiga di dunia setelah India dan China dalam jumlah penderita tuberkulosis-paru (TB-paru). Status gizi, kebiasaan merokok, kondisi rumah dan sanitasi lingkungan yang buruk, serta konsumsi sumber antioksidan alami (sayuran, buah-buahan, dan jamu) yang rendah, dapat menurunkan daya tahan tubuh dan meningkatkan risiko terinfeksi TB-paru. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari profil status gizi, konsumsi sumber antioksidan alami, kebiasaan merokok, kondisi rumah dan sanitasi lingkungan di wilayah Indonesia dengan kasus TB-paru tinggi. Studi observasional analitis dengan desain potong-lintang. Sampel merupakan sampel Riskesdas 2010, berusia minimal 15 tahun dan tinggal di wilayah dengan kasus TB-paru tinggi di Indonesia. Variabel yang dipelajari meliputi profil status TB-paru, karakteristik responden, status gizi, konsumsi sumber antioksidan alami, kebiasaan merokok dan perilaku pencegahan TB-paru, serta kondisi rumah dan sanitasi lingkungan. Proporsi penderita TB-paru lebih tinggi dijumpai pada lelaki, pendidikan rendah, usia produktif, dan status gizi rendah. Proporsi besar juga ditemukan pada perokok yang mulai merokok diusia muda (<10 tahun) dan durasi merokok lama (31-40 tahun). Proporsi agak tinggi penderita TB-paru ditemukan pada konsumen sayuran-buah kurang dari lima porsi perhari. Proporsi perilaku pencegahan TB-paru, kondisi rumah dan lingkungan yang sehat ditemukan lebih besar pada non-penderita TB-paru. Untuk mengurangi jumlah penderita TB-paru, usaha perbaikan hendaknya diarahkan pada perbaikan status gizi, kondisi rumah dan sanitasi lingkungan, pengurangan jumlah perokok usia dini, dan peningkatan konsumsi sayuran dan buah dengan jumlah 5 porsi sehari. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(1): 55-69]

 

Kata Kunci: TB-paru, antioksidan, status gizi, kebiasaan merokok, sanitasi


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Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan ( p-ISSN: 0125-9717. e-ISSN: 2338-8358) is published by National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia

http://ejournal.litbang.depkes.go.id/index.php/pgm/


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