PREVALENSI DAN FAKTOR RISIKO ANEMIA PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR DI RUMAH TANGGA MISKIN DI KABUPATEN TASIKMALAYA DAN CIAMIS, PROVINSI JAWA BARAT

Sudikno Sudikno, Sandjaja Sandjaja

Abstract


Abstract

Background: Anemia in women of reproductive age remains a nutritional problem in developing countries, especially among poor households. Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia among women of reproductive age (WRA) in poor households. Methods: The study design was cross-sectional. The research was conducted in June-July 2011 in two selected districts, namely Tasikmalaya and Ciamis, West Java Province. A sample was 146 WRA of poor households in 24 villages selected peri-urban. The inclusion criteria include healthy WRA age 15-35 years, did not suffer serious illness (chronic or acute), severe anemia (<7 g / dl), and had been wiling to participate in research by signing an informed consent. While, the exclusion criteria were WRA who were still breastfeeding, and WRA are pregnant Results: The prevalence of anemia among women of reproductive age (hemoglobin level <12 g / dl) in this study was 9.6 percent. The women of reproductive age with low ferritin status were 4.01 times likely to become anemic (95% CI: 1.03-15.48) compared with those with sufficient ferritin status after being controlled by vitamin A status and age. Conclusion: This study showed that there was a relationship between serum ferritin with anemia in women of reproductive age in poor households.

Keywords: risk factors, anemia, women of reproductive age, poor household

 

Abstrak

Latar belakang: Anemia pada wanita usia subur masih merupakan masalah gizi di negara berkembang, terutama pada rumahtangga miskin. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi dan faktor risiko anemia pada wanita usia subur (WUS) di rumahtangga miskin. Metode: Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross-sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya dan Ciamis. Sampel sebanyak 146 WUS dari rumahtangga miskin di 24 desa peri-urban yang terpilih. Kriteria inklusi meliputi WUS yang sehat, usia 15-35 tahun, tidak menderita penyakit serius (kronis atau akut), dan tidak mengalami anemia yang serius (<7 g/dl), dan bersedia ikut dalam penelitian. Hasil: Prevalensi anemia WUS (kadar hemoglobin <12 g/dl) pada peneltian ini sebesar 9,6 persen. Pada WUS dengan status feritin yang kurang berisiko untuk menjadi anemia sebesar 4,01 kali (95% CI: 1,03-15,48) dibandingkan dengan WUS dengan status feritin yang cukup setelah dikontrol oleh variabel status vitamin A dan umur. Kesimpulan: Adanya hubungan antara serum feritin dengan anemia pada wanita usia subur di rumah tangga miskin setelah dikontrol oleh status vitamin A dan umur.

Kata kunci: faktor risiko, anemia, wanita usia subur, rumah tangga miskin


Keywords


risk factors, anemia, women of reproductive age, poor household

References


update warta Berita terkini indonesia

World Health Organization. The world health report. Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Wojdyla D, de Benoist B. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12: 444–54.

World Health Organization. WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Anaemia Policy Brief. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2014.

Departemen Kesehatan. Laporan Nasional Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) Tahun 2007 Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen Kesehatan RI. Jakarta: 2009.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2013. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Jakarta: 2013.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun 2014. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI. 2015.

Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers AA, Murray CJL. Comparative quantifi cation of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004.

Horton S, Ross J. The economics of iron deficiency. Food Policy 2003; 28: 51–75.

Balarajan Y, Ramakrishnan U, Özaltin E, Shankar AH, Subramanian SV. Anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2011: 1-13. DOI:10.1016/S0140736(10)62304-5.

Agrawal S, Misra R, Aggarwal A. Anemia in rheumatoid arthritis: high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in Indian patients. Rheumatol Int (2006) 26: 1091–1095. DOI 10.1007/s00296-006-0133-4.

Kaur K. Anaemia ‘a silent killer’ among women in India: Present scenario. Euro J Zool Res, 2014, 3 (1):32-36.

Pala K, Dundar N. Prevalence & risk factors of anaemia among women of reproductive age in Bursa, Turkey. Indian J Med Res 128. 2008:282-286.

Siteti MC, Namasaka SD, Ariya OP, Injete SD, Wanyonyi WA. Anaemia in pregnancy: Prevalence and possible risk factors in Kakamega County, Kenya. Science Journal of Public Health 2014; 2(3): 216-222. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20140203.23. http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/sjph

Sanku DEY, Goswami S, Goswami M. Prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age in Meghalaya: a logistic regression analysis. Turk J Med Sci. 2010; 40 (5): 783-789. doi:10.3906/sag-0811-44

WHO. Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevention and control, a guide for programme managers. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/anaemia_iron_deficiency/WHO_NHD_01.3/en/index.html.

WHO. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005: WHO global database on anaemia. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2008.

WHO. Serum retinol concentrations for determining the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations. Geneva: WHO, 2011. Available http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/retinol.pdf.

Nelson M, Erens B, Bates B, Church S, and Boshier T. 23-hour recall instruction. London: University of London, (tanpa tahun).

World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva: WHO. 2000.

Buseri FI, Uko EK, Jeremiah ZA,Usanga EA. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Pregnant women in Nigeria. The Open Hematology Journal. 2008; 2:14-19.

Central Statistical Agency (CSA) Ethiopia. Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: CSA and ORC Macro, 2011.

Central Statistical Agency (CSA). Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Calverton, Maryland, USA: CSA and ORC Macro, 2005.

Dabral M, Kothiyal P. Prevalence Of Anemia Among Reproductive Age Group Tribal Women In Uttarakhand, India. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science & Research. 2015; 5(4): 301-304.

Mirzaie F, Eftekhari N, Goldozeian S, Mahdavinia J. Prevalence of anemia risk factors in pregnant women in Kerman, Iran. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2010;8(2): 66-69.

Swarnlatha. Prevalence of Anaemia and its Socio Demographic. Determinants among Pregnant Women Attending Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati, A.P. Sudanese Journal Of Public Health. 2013;8 (3):104-106.

Gartner A, Ati JE, Traissac P, Bour A, Berger J, Landais E, Hsaı¨ni HE, Rayana CB, Delpeuch F. A Double Burden of Overall or Central Adiposity and Anemia or Iron Deficiency Is Prevalent but with Little Socioeconomic Patterning among Moroccan and Tunisian Urban Women. J. Nutr. 144: 87–97, 2014. doi:10.3945/jn.113.178285. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/suppl/2013/12/11/jn.113.178285.DCSupplemental.html.

Yi S-W, Han Y-J, Ohrr H. Anemia before pregnancy and risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and small-for-gestational-age birth in Korean women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2013) 67, 337–342.

Nik Rosmawati NH, Mohd Nazri S, Mohd Ismail I. The Rate and Risk Factors for Anemia among Pregnant Mothers in Jerteh Terengganu, Malaysia. J Community Med Health Educ. 2012; 2:150. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000150.

Patavegar BN, Kamble MS, Langare-Patil S. Prevalence of anaemia and its epidemiological correlates among women of reproductive age in a rural setting. International Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences. 2014; 4 (2): 155-159.

Wilunda C, Massawe S, Jackson C. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania demographic and health survey. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2013; 18 (12): 1488-1497. doi:10.1111/tmi.12199.

Batool Z, Zafar MI, Maann AA, Tanvir Ali T. Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting Anemia and Their Effects on Mother, and Child Health in Rural Areas of District Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. Pak. J. Agri. Sci. 2010; 47(1):59-65.

Qin Y, Melse-Boonstra A, Pan X, Yuan B, Dai Y, Zhao J, Zimmermann MB, Kok FJ, Zhou M, Shi Z. Anemia in relation to body mass index and waist circumference among chinese women. Nutrition Journal. 2013;12:10. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-10. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/12/1/10.

Wallace LJ, Summerlee AJS, Dewey CE, Hak C, Hall A, Charles CV. Women’s nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2014;23(2):263-271. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.2.02.

Baynes RD. Assessment of iron status. Clinical biochemistry. 1996;29(3):209-215.

WHO. Serum ferritin concentrations for the assessment of iron status and iron deficiency in populations. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011 (WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.2). (http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/serum_ferritin. pdf.)

Domellof M, Dewey KG, Lonnerdal B, Cohen RJ, Hernell O. The diagnostic criteria for iron deficiency in infants should be reevaluated. Journal of Nutrition, 2002, 132:3680-3686.

Gibson R. Principles of nutritional assessment, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2005.

Zimmermann MB, Biebinger R, Rohner F, Dib A, Zeder C, Hurrell RF, and Chaouki N. 2006. Vitamin A supplementation in children with poor vitamin A and iron status increases erythropoietin and hemoglobin concentrations without changing total body iron. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006:84:580-586.

Suharno D, West CE, Muhilal, Karyadi D, and Hautvast JG. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet 1993: 342:1325-1328.

Masthalina H, Laraeni Y, Dahlia YP. Pola Konsumsi (Faktor Inhibitor dan Enhancer Fe) Terhadap Status Anemia Remaja Putri. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat. 2015; 11 (1): 80-86.

Putri SI, Sumarmi S. Perbandingan Konsumsi Zat Gizi, Status Gizi, dan Kadar Hemoglobin Pengantin Wanita di Wilayah Pantai dan Pertanian Kabupaten Probolinggo. Media Gizi Indonesia. 2013; 9(1):72–77.

Chaparro C, Oot L, Sethuraman K. 2014. Overview of the Nutrition Situation in Seven Countries in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: FHI 360/FANTA.

Bhutta, Z. et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet. 2013; 382(9890):427–451.

Taha A, Azhar S, Lone T, Murtaza G, Khan SA, Mumtaz A, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad2, Kousar R, Karim S, Tariq I, Syed Saeed ul Hassan, Hussain I. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics And Gynecology Outpatient Of University Health Centre In Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014;11(2):339-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v11i2.19.

Shrivastava D, Mukherjee S, Lohana R, Khemka S. Determinants of Factors for Anaemia in Pregnancy in a Rural Medical College. Global Journal of Medical research Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2013;13(2) Version 1.0


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



free hit counter
View My Stats

Creative Commons License
Jurnal Kesehatan Reproduksi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence

Main indexing by: