KONDISI LINGKUNGAN RUMAH DAN KEJADIAN ISPA PADA BALITA DI INDONESIA

Zahra Zahra, Okky Rico Assetya

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Afurther analysis of the 2013 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) data on the incidence of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) of children under five years in Indonesia has been conducted. The unit of analysis is a children age 0-59 months, with a total sample of 75,212 children. The dependent variable is the incidence of ARI, whereas the independent variables are exposure to cigarette smoke in the house, the type of cooking fuel, and the condition of the house window. Analysis is done by region. The results showed the highest prevalence of ARI ounder children under-five in Java-Bali region (28.1%) and the smallest in Maluku region (16.6%). The most significant housing environmental condition factors associated with ARI occurrence based on per region analysis is exposure to secondhand smoke in the home (3 regions) compared to the condition of the window of risk (2 regions) and cooking fuel (1 region). The Java-Bali Region had the highest proportion of children under five who were exposed to all housing environmental condition factors, although the analysis of relationships in this region showed only statistically significant cigarette exposure factor (p = 0.001; OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1, 05-1.23).The effort to prevent the occurrence of ARI of children under five years is minimizing the potential for air pollution exposure at home, such as not smoking inside the home, using the not risk type of fuel and routinely open the window every day.

Keywords: Acute respiratory infection, region, environmental risk factors

 

ABSTRAK

Telah dilakukan analisis lanjut data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) tahun 2013 mengenai kejadian ISPA (Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut) atau acute respiratory infection/ARI pada balita di Indonesia. Unit analisis adalah balita usia 0-59 bulan, dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 75.212 balita. Variabel dependen adalah kejadian ISPA, sedangkan variabel independen adalah kondisi lingkungan rumah meliputi asap rokok dalam rumah, jenis bahan bakar memasak, dan kondisi jendela rumah. Analisis dilakukan menurut regional. Hasil analisis menunjukan prevalensi ISPA pada balita terbesar terdapat di region Jawa-Bali (28,1%) dan terkecil di region Maluku (16,6%). Faktor kondisi lingkungan rumah yang paling banyak memiliki hubungan bermakna dengan kejadian ISPA berdasarkan analisis per region adalah asap rokok dalam rumah (3 region), dibanding kondisi jendela berisiko (2 region) dan bahan bakar masak (1 region). Region Jawa-Bali memiliki proporsi balita paling tinggi yang terpajan semua faktor kondisi lingkungan rumah, walaupun analisis hubungan pada region ini menunjukan hanya faktor pajanan asap rokok dalam rumah yang bermakna secara statistik(p=0,001; OR=1,14; 95% CI =1,05-1,23).Upaya pencegahan kejadian ISPA pada balita adalah dengan meminimalisir potensi pajanan pencemaran udara dalam rumah, seperti tidak merokok didalam rumah, menggunakan jenis bahan bakar yang tidak berisiko dan secara rutin membuka jendela rumah setiap hari.

Kata kunci: ISPA, region, kondisi lingkungan rumah

Keywords


Acute respiratory infection, region, environmental risk factors

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