STUDI EFIKASI DAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT DALAM PENGGUNAAN KELAMBU BERINSEKTISIDA DI DESA SUNGAI NYAMUK, PULAU SEBATIK, KALIMANTAN UTARA

sugiarto sugiarto, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana, Lukman Hakim

Abstract


ABSTRACT

In an attempt to eliminate malaria, government tries to control the vector of the disease through the distribution of Long Lasting Insecticide nets. In the process of use, users of this type of mosquito net need to do maintenance to ensure its effectiveness. This study  aim to analyze the effectiveness of insecticide treated mosquito net against Anopheles sp. and knowing the knowledge, attitude, behavior of the community on the use and maintenance of the LLiNs. The research was conducted in Sungai Nyamuk Village, Sebatik Sub-district, Nunukan District, North Kalimantan with cross-sectional design. Data on the effectiveness of mosquito nets were obtained by performing Bioassay Cone Test (efficacy test) on insecticide and non-insecticide treated nets in households that have been using mosquito nets for more than 6 months. The community’s Knowledge, Attitude, and Practise data were obtained by interviewing selected respondents using questionnaires. Processing and data analysing was done univariat and bivariat. The results showed that the most effective mosquito insecticide was the mosquito net that had been used for 6 months. The bed nets that had been used for 12-24 months had started to be less effective. All respondents (100%) agreed with the distribution of insecticide nets, but only 87% said they were willing to use it. All respondents (100%) did the installation of mosquito nets correctly, and had never washed the mosquito net. Can be concluded that insecticidal nets that have been used for more than 12 months have begun to be ineffective in controlling the vector of Anopheles sp. mosquito. Almost all respondents did not treat/wash the insecticide treated mosquito nets. In order to eliminate malaria in Sungai Nyamuk village there need to be an increase of active community participation (netting treatment) in the effort of vector control (Anopheles sp.).

Keywords: Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLiNs), washed, Bioassay Cone Test

 

 

ABSTRAK

Dalam upaya melakukan eliminasi malaria, pemerintah berusaha mengendalikan vektor penyakit tersebut melalui pembagian kelambu berinsektisida. Dalam proses penggunaannya, pengguna kelambu jenis ini perlu melakukan pemeliharaan untuk menjamin efektifitasnya. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan maksud untuk menganalisis efektifitas kelambu berinsektisida terhadap nyamuk Anopheles sp. dan mengetahui pengetahuan, sikap, perilaku masyarakat terhadap penggunaan dan pemeliharaan kelambu tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Sungai Nyamuk, Kecamatan Sebatik, Kabupaten Nunukan-Kalimantan Utara dengan desain cross sectional. Data efektivitas kelambu diperoleh dengan cara melakukan Bioassay Cone Test (uji efikasi) terhadap kelambu berinsektisida dan yang tidak berinsektisida di rumah tangga yang telah menggunakan kelambu lebih dari 6 bulan. Data PSP masyarakat diperoleh dengan cara wawancara terhadap responden terpilih dengan menggunakan kuesioner. Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan secara univariat dan bivariat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelambu berinsektisida yang paling efektif adalah kelambu telah digunakan selama 6 bulan.  Kelambu yang telah digunakan 12-24 bulan sudah mulai tidak efektif. Seluruh responden (100%) setuju dengan pembagian kelambu berinsektisida, tetapi hanya 87% yang menyatakan  bersedia menggunakannya. Seluruh responden (100%) melakukan pemasangan kelambu dengan benar, dan belum pernah mencuci kelambu yang dibagikan. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kelambu berinsektisida yang telah digunakan lebih dari 12 bulan sudah mulai tidak efektif  dalam mengendalikan vektor nyamuk Anopheles sp. Hampir seluruh responden tidak  merawat/melakukan pencucian kelambu berinsektisida yang dibagikan. Dalam rangka eliminasi malaria di Desa Sungai Nyamuk perlu adanya peningkatan partisipasi aktif masyarakat (perawatan kelambu) dalam upaya pengendalian vektor (Anopheles sp.).

Kata kunci: Efikasi, kelambu berinsektisida, perawatan kelambu, Bioassay Cone Test



Keywords


Efikasi, kelambu berinsektisida, perawatan kelambu, Bioassay Cone Test

References


Ammar, S.E.S. et al., 2013. Characterization of the Mosquito Breeding Habitats in Two Urban Localities of Cairo. Greener Journal of Biological Sciences, 3(7), pp.268–275.

Atieli, F.K. et al., 2010. The effect of repeated washing of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets ( LLINs ) on the feeding success and survival rates of Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal, 9, p.304. Available at: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/9/1/304.

Gimnig, J.E. et al., 2005. Laboratory wash resistance of long-lasting insecticidal nets. , 10(10), pp.1022–1029.

Kesehatan, D., 2015. Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Nunukan Tahun 2014, Nunukan-Kalimantan Utara.

Kesehatan, K., 2015. Profil Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang (PPBB) 2015., Jakarta.

Mathanga, D.P. et al., 2015. The effectiveness of long ‑ lasting , insecticide ‑ treated nets in a setting of pyrethroid resistance : a case – control study among febrile children 6 to 59 months of age in Machinga District , Malawi. Malaria Journal, 14, pp.1–8.

Okumu, F.O. et al., 2013. Comparative field evaluation of combinations of long-lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying , relative to either method alone , for malaria prevention in an area where the main vector is Anopheles arabiensis. Paracite & Vectors, pp.1–20. Available at: http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/6/1/46.

Rafinejad, J. et al., 2008. Effect of washing on the bioefficacy of insecticide-treated nets ( ITNs ) and long-lasting insecticidal nets ( LLINs ) against main malaria vector Anopheles stephensi by three bioassay methods. J Vector Borne Dis, (June), pp.143–150.

Sugiarto et al., 2016. Karakteristik Habitat Larva Anopheles spp . di Desa Sungai Nyamuk , Daerah Endemik Malaria di Kabupaten Nunukan , Kalimantan Utara Habitat Characteristics of Anopheles spp . Larvae in Sungai Nyamuk Village , a Malaria Endemic Region in Nunukan District ,. BALABA, 12(1), pp.47–54.

WHO, 2013. Guidelines for Laboratory and Field-testing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets, World Health Organization.

Wirawan, I.A., 2006. Hama Permukiman Indonesia Pengenalan, Biologi, dan Pengendalian S. H. Sigit & U. K. Hadi, eds., Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



View JEK Statistics

Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.

Jurnal Ekologi Kesehatan (The Indonesian Journal of Health Ecology, p-ISSN: 1412-4025, e-ISSN: 2354-8754) has been indexed by: