PENINGKATAN INDEKS STANDAR PENCEMARAN UDARA (ISPU) DAN KEJADIAN GANGGUAN SALURAN PERNAPASAN DI KOTA PEKANBARU

Asep Hermawan, Miko Hananto, Doni Lasut

Abstract


ABSTRACT

In 2015, the forest fires are quite severe in Riau Province. This causes the reduction of air quality, which in turn can cause breathing problems. This article aims to determine the relationship of the increase in air pollution index (API) and the cases of respiratory problems in Pekanbaru City in 2015. The study design was cross-sectional. Samples are all people with respiratory problems (Upper Respiratory Tract Infections/URI, asthma, and pneumonia) who visited Puskesmas or health post in Pekanbaru, amounted to 12,939 people. Data collected were daily data of API and Pekanbaru residents visit to Puskesmas and health posts with complaints of respiratory problems. Spearman rho correlation test was used to analyze the data with SPSS software. API from July to October 2015 range was quite wide from 34.7 up to 778.0. Average API in September and October 2015 were more than in the period of July and August 2015. The Spearman rho correlation analysis showed that the API value have significant correlation (p=0.000) with respiratory problems. Correlation between API with URI, asthma, and pneumonia is highest on the lag time 0, respectively 0.779; 0.237; and 0.436. It can be concluded that the increased API will increase URI on the same day.

Keywords: Forest fires, API, URI, asthma, pneumonia

 

ABSTRAK

Pada tahun 2015 terjadi kebakaran hutan yang cukup parah di Provinsi Riau. Hal ini mengakibatkan menurunnya kualitas udara yang pada akhirnya dapat menimbulkan gangguan kesehatan terutama yang terkait dengan pernapasan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan peningkatan indeks standar pencemaran udara (ISPU) dengan kejadian gangguan pernapasan di Kota Pekanbaru tahun 2015. Desain penelitian adalah potong lintang. Sampel adalah semua penderita gangguan pernapasan (Infeksi Saluran Pernapasan Atas /ISPA, asma, dan pneumoni) yang berkunjung ke Puskesmas atau posko kesehatan di Kota Pekanbaru, berjumlah 12.939 orang. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah data harian ISPU dan kunjungan penduduk Kota Pekanbaru ke Puskesmas dan pos kesehatan dengan keluhan ISPA, asma dan pneumonia. Digunakan uji korelasi Spearman rho untuk analisis data dengan piranti lunak SPSS. Didapatkan hasil bahwa ISPU pada bulan Juli sampai Oktober 2015 berada pada rentang yang cukup lebar yaitu sebesar 34,7 sampai dengan 778,0. Rerata ISPU pada bulan September dan Oktober 2015 lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan periode Juli dan Agustus 2015. Analisis korelasi Spearman rho menunjukkan bahwa nilai ISPU berhubungan secara signifikan (p = 0,000) dengan gangguan pernapasan. Korelasi antara ISPU dengan ISPA, asma, dan pneumoni paling tinggi terjadi pada lag time 0, yaitu masing-masing 0,779; 0,237; dan 0,436. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa meningkatnya ISPU akan meningkatkan ISPA pada hari yang sama.

Kata kunci: Kebakaran hutan, ISPU, ISPA, asma, pneumoni

Keywords


Forest fires, API, URI, asthma, pneumonia

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