BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus) MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE

Semuel Sandy

BIONOMY OF Anopheles punctulatus GROUP (Anopheles farauti, Anopheles koliensis, Anopheles punctulatus) MALARIA VECTOR IN PAPUA PROVINCE

Abstract


ABSTRAKMalaria merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di Provinsi Papua dengan angka Annual Parasite Incidence (API) padatahun 2011 sebesar 58 per 1000 penduduk dan Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI) sebesar 169 per 1000 penduduk. Vektormalaria Papua dilaporkan Anopheles farauti, An. punctulatus dan An. koliensis. Tiga spesies tersebut aktif menggigit padamalam hari (nokturnal), antropofilik dengan karakteristik tempat perkembangbiakan, aktifitas menggigit, dan tempatistirahat dilaporkan spesifik setiap spesies. Kajian ini untuk melihat beberapa aspek bionomi (tempat perkembangbiakan,aktifitas menggigit, dan tempat istirahat. Larva An. farauti memiliki habitat di daerah pantai, perairan payau (memilikitoleransi terhadap salinitas 4,6%), irigasi buatan atau alami. Nyamuk dewasa An. farauti betina bersifat nokturnal,eksofagik, eksofilik, dan antropofilik. Larva An. koliensis tidak ditemukan di perairan payau, banyak ditemukan di hutanrawa, hutan sagu, kolam semi permanen atau permanen yang dangkal dan terpapar sinar matahari langsung. Nyamukdewasa An. koliensis bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (78% menggigit manusia), eksofagik, eksofilik sedangkan larva An.punctulatus tidak ditemukan di air payau, tetapi ditemukan pada kolam dengan air jernih atau keruh dengan vegetasi atautanpa vegetasi air. Larva An. punctulatus juga ditemukan di hutan sagu dan hutan rawa dengan paparan sinar mataharilangsung. Nyamuk dewasa An. punctulatus bersifat nokturnal, antropofilik (98% menggigit manusia), eksofagik, endofilik.Data dasar mengenai perilaku nyamuk Anopheles (bionomi) sangat diperlukan dalam mengembangkan pola intervensi dankontrol vektor yang lebih efektif dan efisien.Kata kunci: vektor malaria, An. punctulatus group, bionomi, PapuaABSTRACTMalaria is a major health problem in Papua province with Annual Parasite Incidence (API) was reported 58/1000population in 2011, and the Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI) was 169/1000 population. The malaria vector in Papua wereAnopheles farauti, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis. These three species were nocturnal, antrophopilic with the diferrencebionomics such as breeding habitats, biting activity, and resting places. The aim of this study was to determine the bionomicaspects of the malaria vectors (resting places, biting activity and breading habitats) in the study areas. The larvae of An.farauti was reported found at coastal, area with brackish water (salinity ± 4.6 %), natural or artificial irrigation canals.Adult female mosquitoes of An. farauti were found nocturnal, eksofagik eksofilik , and antrophopilic habit. An. koliensislarvae not found in brackish, they were found in the swamp and sago forest, semipermanent or permanent ponds whichshallow and exposed to direct sunlight . Adult mosquitoes of An. koliensis were nocturnal, antrophopilic (78% human bites),eksofagik, eksofilik. The larvae of An. punctulatus was not found in brackish water, it was found in a pool with clear or turbidwater which presence or no water vegetation, the larvae of An. punctulatus also found in sago and swamp forest withexposure to direct sunlight. Adult mosquites of An. punctulatus were nocturnal, antrophopilic (98% human bites), eksofagik,endofilik. Basic data on the behaviour of Anopheles spp (bionomic) is necessary in developing effective and efficientintervention pattern and control vector.Key words: malaria vector, An. punctulatus group, bionomic, Papua

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