Karakteristik Habitat dan Keberadaan Larva Aedes spp. pada Wilayah Kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue Tertinggi dan Terendah di Kota Tasikmalaya

Muhammad Umar Riandi, Upik Kesumawati Hadi, Susi Soviana

Abstract


Abstract. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a vector‐borne disease caused by dengue virus and transmitted by Aedes spp. controlling the mosquito population is currently the only means to prevent dengue outbreaks. The
highest dengue case in Tasikmalaya City until July 2015 was in Cikalang village dan the lowest in Cibunigeulis village. This research was an observational study with a cross‐sectional design with the aim to determine vector density and Aedes sp. presence risk factor based on habitat characteristic in the highest and lowest dengue cases regions. Aedes spp. breeding sites and their characteristic were examined indoor and outdoor at 100 house each in Cikalang dan Cibunigeulis village. The result showed that in Cikalang, larval presence was mostly found in a non‐water‐reservoir containers (18.4%), indoor (6.5%), made of cement/soil/rubber (11.1%), open lid (7.5%), <1 litre volume (14.6%), without draining (22.2%), without larvivorous fish (6.5%), with temephos poured (20.3%), and water company household water source (7,7%). As in Cibunigeulis larval habitats was mostly found in a non‐water‐reservoir containers (8.7%), indoor (0.9%), made of plastic/ceramic/metal/glass (0.9%), open lid (1.1%), <1 litre volume (4%), without draining (2.2%), without larvivorous fish (0.9%), without temephos poured (0.9%), and non‐water company household water source (0.9%). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that household water source (p=0,021, OR=13,78) and drainage (p=0,001, OR=0,101) as a risk factor in Aedes larvae inhabit at Cikalang village and none for Cibunigeulis village. These results showed the importance effect of containers draining factor to the presence of Aedes spp. larvae in the highest dengue cases region.

Keywords: Aedes spp., larvae habitat, density, habitat characteristic, Tasikmalaya

Abstrak. Demam Berdarah Dengue merupakan penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue dan disebarkan oleh nyamuk Aedes spp. Pengendalian populasi nyamuk masih merupakan cara untuk mencegah terjadinya kejadian luar biasa kasus Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD). Kasus DBD di Kota Tasikmalaya hingga Juli 2015 terendah berada di Kelurahan Cikalang dan tertinggi di Kelurahan Cibunigeulis. Penelitian ini merupakan observasi deskriptif analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional study. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kepadatan vektor dan faktor karakteristik habitat paling berisiko terhadap keberadaan larva Aedes sp. di wilyah kasus DBD tertinggi dan terendah di Kota Tasikmalaya. Pemeriksaan karakteristik habitat larva dilakukan terhadap 100 rumah di masing‐masing Kelurahan Cikalang dan Kelurahan Cibunigeulis. Hasilnya didapatkan habitat larva terbanyak di Cikalang berada pada jenis kontainer non‐TPA (18,4%), letak di dalam rumah (6,5%), berbahan
semen/tanah/karet (11,1%), penutup kontainer terbuka (7,5%), volume <1 liter (14,6%), tanpa pengurasan (22,2%), tidak memelihara ikan (6,5%), ditaburi temefos (20,3%), dan sumber air PAM (7,7%). Adapun di Cibunigeulis habitat larva terbanyak ditemukan pada jenis kontainer non‐TPA (8,7%), letak di dalam rumah (0,9%), berbahan plastik/keramik/logam/kaca (0,9%), penutup kontainer terbuka (1,1%), volume <1 liter (4%), tanpa pengurasan (2,2%), tidak memelihara ikan (0,9%), tidak ditaburi temefos (0,9%), dan sumber air non‐PAM (0,9%). Uji regresi logistik biner memperlihatkan bahwa sumber air rumah tangga (p=0,021; OR=13,78) dan pengurasan kontainer (p=0,001; OR=0,101) sebagai faktor yang paling berpengaruh terhadap keberadaan larva di Cikalang. Akan tetapi, di Cibunigeulis tidak ada satupun faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap keberadaan larva Aedes. Hasil ini memperlihatkan besarnya pengaruh faktor pengurasan kontainer terhadap keberadaan larva Aedes spp. di wilayah kasus DBD tertinggi.

Kata Kunci: Aedes spp., habitat larva, kepadatan larva, karakteristik habitat, Tasikmalaya


Keywords


Aedes spp.; habitat larva; kepadatan larva; karakteristik habitat; Tasikmalaya

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Jurnal Aspirator (Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, p-ISSN: 2085-4102 e-ISSN: 2338-7343) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia.

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