Keanekaragaman Anopheles spp. di Daerah Endemis Malaria Desa Siayuh [Trans] Kabupaten Kotabaru Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan

Liestiana Indriyati, Wulan Sari Rasna Giri Sembiring, Akhmad Rosanji

Abstract


Abstract. The Health Research in 2010 informed that the prevalence of Malaria in Indonesia was 0.6%, and it was the sixth highest caused of death on infectious diseases. Malaria is transmitted by Anopheles spp..
About 70 species of Anopheles have been identified as vectors of Malaria in the world, 24 species exist in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the suspects of mosquito vectors and the density of mosquitoes in endemic areas, so we can establish the best interventions for vector control in the location. The research was held in Siayuh (Trans) village, Bungkukan Sub District of Kotabaru Regency in February 2015. The activities are mosquito’s collection (adult and larvae), mosquito identification, environmental survey and PCR test. Mosquito’s night collection was done by indoor and outdoor human landing collection method and rest collection in wall and cattle. The result of mosquito’s collection in Siayuh (Trans) village was 8 species of Anopheles spp.. The highest percentage was Anopheles tesselatus (56%) followed by An. vagus
(14%), An. kochi (11%) and An. hyrcanus group (9%). Diverse species, abundance and high density of mosquitoes in Siayuh (Trans) village was due to the geographical conditions of the village, it surrounded by marsh and many limestone puddles as a breeding habitat of Anopheles spp.. Anopheles spp. were found in Siayuh (Trans) village and it tend to be zoophilic, bite and resting out of the house, especially in the cattle, it
makes the activities of people around the cattle at night cause a higher risk for Malaria transmission.

Keywords: Anopheles, vector, Malaria, Kotabaru

Abstrak. Hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar tahun 2010, prevalensi Malaria di Indonesia 0,6% dan merupakan penyebab kematian ke‐6 pada penyakit menular. Malaria ditularkan oleh nyamuk Anopheles spp, sekitar 70 spesies Anopheles spp. telah teridentifikasi sebagai vektor Malaria di dunia, 24 spesies di antaranya ada di Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui spesies dan kepadatan tersangka nyamuk vektor Malaria di daerah endemis Desa Siayuh (Trans) Kecamatan Bungkukan Kabupaten Kotabaru. Kegiatan dilakukan pada bulan Februari 2015 yaitu penangkapan nyamuk dewasa dan pradewasa, identifikasi nyamuk, survei lingkungan dan uji PCR. Kegiatan penangkapan nyamuk dilakukan sepanjang malam dengan metode Umpan Orang Dalam (UOD), Umpan Orang Luar (UOL), resting dinding dan kandang ternak. Hasil penelitian yaitu ditemukan 8 spesies Anopheles spp. dengan persentase tertinggi Anopheles tesselatus (61,51%) diikuti oleh An. vagus (11,36%), An. kochi (9,15%) dan An. hyrcanus gr (6,94%). Keanekaragaman spesies, kelimpahan dan kepadatan nyamuk yang tinggi di Desa Siayuh (Trans) akibat kondisi geografis desa yang dikelilingi rawa dan banyaknya genangan air akibat kobakan batu kapur yang menjadi tempat perkembangbiakan Anopheles spp. Nyamuk Anopheles spp. yang ditemukan di Desa Siayuh (Trans) cenderung bersifat zoofilik dan lebih banyak ditemukan menggigit dan istirahat di luar rumah khususnya kandang sehingga aktivitas warga di sekitar kandang ternak pada malam hari menjadi risiko bagi penularan Malaria.

Kata Kunci: Anopheles, vektor, Malaria, Kotabaru


Keywords


Anopheles, vektor, malaria, kota baru

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Jurnal Aspirator (Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, p-ISSN: 2085-4102 e-ISSN: 2338-7343) is published by Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia.

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