Antibiotik Golongan Fluorokuinolon: Manfaat dan Kerugian

Mariana Raini

Abstract


Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics used widely to treat many infections, from urinary tractinfections to anthrax. In 2012 – 2014, ciprofloxacin, one of the family of fluoroquinolones was the thirdmost widely prescribed both in hospitals and Primary Health Cares in Indonesia. Fluoroquinolones aretoxic and have more side effects than other antibiotics, if they are not used accordingly. It can causepermanent injuries and even death.The aim of this study is to review the benefits and side effects offluoroquinolone antibiotics therefore it can give the information to people and relevant institution in the used of fluoroquinolone antibiotic. The method used is to review literatures of fluoroquinolone antbioticfrom national and international journal regarding the benefits and the side effects fluoroquinoloneantibiotic. The study describes list of fluoroquinolones antbiotic, use, mechanism, side effects, resistance.Results: Fluoroquinolones have very narrow safety profile, that is rarely obeyed. They are safe in thelow doses and short course but for long treatment or high doses, can cause the side effects. The sideeffects of fluoroquinolones are gastrointestinal disturbance, CNS toxicity, kidney injury, visual effects,skin reactions, liver injury, atrophy and tendinitis, cardiac toxicity, hematologic syndrome, immunereactions, metabolic syndrome, teratogenicity. Conclusion: Because of the side effects, fluoroquinolone,must be used carefully, it should only be perscribed for severe life-threatening, Multi Drug Resistanceor failed treatment with other antibiotics or to treat bacterial infection that has good response withfluoroquinolones.

Keywords: antibiotic, fluoroquinolones, use, side effects

 

Abstrak

Fluorokuinolon merupakan suatu antibiotik berspektrum lebar yang digunakan secara luas untuk terapi berbagai infeksi, mulai dari infeksi saluran urin hingga antraks. Selama tahun 2012 sampai 2014,siprofloksasin, salah satu golongan fluorokuinolon, merupakan antibiotik ketiga yang paling banyak diresepkan baik di Puskesmas maupun di Rumah Sakit di Indonesia. Fluorokuinolon bersifat toksik mempunyai efek samping yang lebih berat dari antibiotik lain, menimbulkan kerusakan permanen bahkan kematian jika tidak digunakan secara tepat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji manfaat dan kerugian antibiotik fluorokuinolon sehingga dapat memberikan informasi kepada masyarakat daninstansi terkait tentang penggunaan antibiotik ini. Metoda yang digunakan adalah melakukan kajian literatur dari jurnal nasional dan internasional tentang manfaat dan efek samping antibiotik fluorokinolon.Kajian ini menguraikan tentang jenis fluorokuinolon, penggunaan, mekanisme kerja, efek samping, dan resistensi. Hasil: Fluorokuinolon mempunyai rentang keamanan yang sangat sempit dan sering tidak dipatuhi. Obat ini aman dalam dosis rendah dan penggunaan singkat namun untuk dosis tinggi atau pemakaian waktu lama dapat menimbulkan efek samping. Efek samping yang ditimbulkan adalah gangguan pencernaan, gangguan SSP, gangguan ginjal, gangguan penglihatan, gangguan kulit,gangguan hati, atropi dan tendinitis, gangguan kardiovaskular, gangguan hematologi, reaksi imunologi,gangguan metabolik, dan teratogenik. Kesimpulan: Oleh karena efek samping yang ditimbulkan,penggunaan fluorokuinolon harus dilakukan secara sangat hati-hati, hanya digunakan untuk infeksi berat yang mengancam kehidupan, Multi Drug Resistance atau gagal terapi dengan antibiotik lain atau infeksi bakteri yang mempunyai respons baik dengan fluorokuinolon.

Kata kunci: antibiotik, fluorokuinolon, penggunaan, efek samping

 


Keywords


Antibiotik; fluorokinolon; penggunaan; efek samping

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