Angka Kejadian dan Penatalaksanaan Keracunan di Instalasi Gawat Darurat RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekardjo Purwokerto Tahun 2012–2014

Laila Safitrih, Anjar Mahardian Kusuma, Much Ilham N Aji Wibowo

Abstract


Poison can affect or even make dysfunction in the body that can lead to healthy status decreases inemergency situation. Poisoning management needs an appropriate therapy so we can save the life andmake the medication becomes effective and efficient. This study aimed to know the number of poisoningcase and to evaluate the management of poisoning in Emergency Department of Margono SoekarjoHospital of Purwokerto. This study was a descriptive retrospective used patient medical records ofEmergency Department of Margono Soekarjo Hospital of Purwokerto in a period of January 2012 toDecember 2014. To evaluate the management we used poisoning guideline books by BPOM RI in 2001.From January 2012 to December 2014, 117 cases of poisoning occurred, and the highest cause wassnake bites (69,2%). Other causes were pesticides, foods, drug, alcohol, plant, and shellfish. Majority ofthe patients were men (70.1%), in age 28-45 (30.5%), had low educations (49.6%) and jobless (71.8%).The managements varied among patients used antidotes, antibiotic, antihistamine, analgesic-antipiretic,hemostatic agent, anti infection, and some gastrointestinal drugs. The managements which appropriatewith the guideline were 24 cases (20.51%), 75 cases (64.10%) inappropriates with the guideline fromBadan Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) also 18 cases with no management as written onthe book as a consecuency of the lack of Operasional Standard Guideline for poisoning management in Emergency Department of Margono Soekarjo Hospital of Purwokerto so there is a needed to makean Operasional Standar Guideline for poisoning management in Emergency Department of Margono Soekarjo Hospital for a better management in the future.

Keywords: management, poisoning, emergency department

 

Abstrak

Racun dapat mengganggu fungsi tubuh atau bahkan menghentikan fungsi tubuh yang berakibat terjadinya penurunan kesehatan dalam kondisi gawat darurat. Penatalaksanaan keracunan membutuhkan terapi yang tepat sehingga dapat menyelamatkan nyawa pasien dan membuat pengobatan menjadi efektif danefisien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui angka kejadian dan mengevaluasi penatalaksanaankeracunan di Instalasi Gawat Darurat RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto. Penelitian inimerupakan penelitian deskriptif retrospektif menggunakan data rekam medik pasien Instalasi GawatDarurat RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto Periode Januari 2012–Desember 2014.Alat ukur yang digunakan adalah buku pedoman penatalaksanaan keracunan yang disusun BPOMRI tahun 2001. Pada periode tersebut ditemukan 117 kasus keracunan dengan angka kematian 0kasus. Penyebab tertinggi keracunan yakni gigitan ular (69,2%) selain itu ditemukan juga keracunan pestisida, makanan, obat, alkohol, racun tanaman, dan shellfish. Pasien mayoritas adalah laki-laki(70,1%), usia 28–45 tahun (30,5%), memiliki pendidikan rendah yaitu SD (49,6%) serta tidak memilikipekerjaan (71,8%). Penatalaksanaan bervariasi antar tiap pasien menggunakan antidotum, antibiotik,antihistamin, analgetik-antipiretik, hemostatic agent, anti infeksi, dan beberapa obat gastrointestinallainnya. Penatalaksanaan keracunan yang sudah sesuai buku pedoman Badan Pengawasan Obatdan Makanan (BPOM) RI sebanyak 24 kasus (20,51%), belum sesuai sebanyak 75 kasus (64,10%)dan belum terdapat di dalam pedoman sebanyak 18 kasus (15,38%) sebagai konsekuensi dari belumtersedianya standar prosedur operasional untuk penatalaksanaan keracunan di Instalasi Gawat DaruratRSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto sehingga perlu dibuat suatu standar prosedur operasionaluntuk menangani keracunan di RSUD Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Purwokerto agar penatalaksanaan keracunan yang lebih maksimal.

Kata Kunci: penatalaksanaan, keracunan, Instalasi Gawat Darurat


Keywords


penatalaksanaan; keracunan; Instalasi Gawat Darurat

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