CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JAVANEESE PEPPER LEAVES (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL.)

Yuliasri Jamal, Pipit Irawati, Ahmad Fathoni, Andria Agusta

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JAVANEESE PEPPER LEAVES (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL.)

Abstract


Abstrak

Daun cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) telah terbukti berkhasiat sebagai bahan antimikroba, akan tetapi belum ada informasi lebih lanjut tentang mekanisme aksi antibakteri dari minyak atsiri daun cabe jawa. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh minyak atsiri daun cabe jawa terhadap bakteri uji sensitif serta difokuskan untuk melihat kerusakan membran sel bakteri melalui analisis protein, asam nukleat dan ion-ion logam kalsium dan kalium. Distilasi uap minyak atsiri dari daun segar cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) menghasilkan 0.03% cairan kental kekuningan. Analisis dengan GC-MS mengidentifikasi 4 senyawa sebagai komponen utama, yaitu germakren D (24.20%), tetrametilsiklo[5.3.1.0(4.11)]-undek-8-ena (17.73%), ar-turmeron (11.55%) dan benzil benzoat (6.28%). Minyak atsiri cabe jawa terbukti aktif melawan beberapa bakteri patogen antara lain Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus dengan diameter daya hambat berturut-turut 8.0; 9.7; 8.5 mm. Pengamatan lebih lanjut memperlihatkan nilai MIC dari minyak atsiri cabe jawa  terhadap B. subtilis adalah 2% (v/v), dan juga merubah morfologi sel dari bakteri yang diobservasi menggunakan SEM.

Kata kunci: Piper retrofractum Vah., cabe jawa, minyak atsiri, aktivitas antibakteri

Abstract

The leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) has been proven efficacious as antimicrobial agent, however, there was no further information about action mechanism of antibacterial of Javaneese pepper leaves essential oil. This study was to determine the effect of essential oils of javaneese pepper leaves against bacterial sensitive test and is focused on investigating the damage of cell membranes of bacteria through the analysis of proteins, nucleic acids and metal ions, calcium and potassium. Steam distillation of essential oil from fresh leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl.) gave 0.03 % yellowish viscous liquid. Germacrene D (24.20 %), tetramethylcyclo[5.3.1.0(4.11)]-undec-8-ene (17.73 %), Ar-turmeron (11.55 %) and benzyl benzoate (6.28 %) were identified as major constituents analyzed by GC-MS. Javaneese pepper essential oil was active against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus with diameter of clear zone of 8.0, 9.7 and 8.5 mm respectively. Further investigation showed MIC value of the oil against B. subtilis was 2 % (v/v), and was also alter the cell morphology of tested bacterium observed by SEM.

Key words: Piper retrofractum Vahl., Javeneese pepper, essential oil, antibacterial activity

Keywords


Piper retrofractum Vahl.; Javeneese pepper; essential oil; antibacterial activity

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p-ISSN: 0853-9987
e-ISSN: 2338-3445
Published by: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan
Jalan Percetakan Negara No.29
Jakarta Pusat 10560
Indonesia



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