In Vitro Study of Eight Indonesian Natural Extracts as Antiviral Against Dengue Virus

Leli Saptawati, Ratih Puspita Febrinasari, Ratih Dewi Yudhani, Hudi Yono, Agya Ghilman Faza, Sarah Luthfiani, Hutami Sri Ummiyati, T Mirawati Sudiro, Beti Ernawati Dewi

Abstract


Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) caused by a dengue viruses is still a major problem in tropical countries, including Indonesia. World Health Organization data showed that over 40% of world population are at risk of DHF.1In 2014 there were 71.668 of DHF cases in 34 provinces with 641 death.2 In Central Java in 2013, the incidence rate and fatality rate of DHF was 45.52 in 100.000 populations and 1.21% respectively.3 Until nowadays, there is no vaccine or effective therapy is available as yet.4 Thus research on discovering specific antiviral against dengue is needed. Indonesia is rich in indigenous herbal plants, which may has potential antiviral activity, such as Psidium guajava (Jambu biji), Euphorbia hirta (Patikn kerbau), Piper bettle L (Sirih), Carica papaya (Pepaya), Curcuma longa L(Kunyit/turmeric), Phyllanthus niruri L (meniran), Andrographis paniculata (Sambiloto), Cymbopogon citrates (Serai). Previous studies show that these plants have antiviral and antibacterial properties.5However, there is only limited study of these plants against dengue virus .

Objective: This study aimed to know whether these plants have potential activity against dengue virus in vitro.

Method: Leave extracts of eight indigenous herbal plants as mention before were originated from Solo, Central Java, the crude extracts were tested in vitro against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) strain NGC using Huh7it-1 cell line. Those crude extracts were screened for antiviral activity using doses of 20mg/ml. Candidates that showed inhibition activity were further tested in various doses to determine IC50 and CC50.

Result: From eight leave extracts tested, one of them i.e Carica papaya (pepaya) inhibited virus replication up to 89,5%. Dose dependent assay with C.papaya resulted in IC50, CC50 and selectivity index 6,57 μg/mL, 244,76 μg/mL and 37, 25 μg/mL respectively.

Conclusion: C.papaya has potential antiviral activity against dengue virus in vitro. Further study is needed to confirm antiviral activity in vivo.

Key word : Dengue virus, natural extract, antiviral activity, Carica papaya


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Health Science Journal of Indonesia

p-ISSN: 2087-7021
e-EISSN: 2338-3437

Published by : Badan Litbang Kesehatan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI

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