In vitro study of eight Indonesian plants extracts as anti Dengue virus

Leli Saptawati, Ratih Puspita Febrinasari, Ratih Dewi Yudhani, Hudi Yono, Agya Ghilman Faza, Sarah Luthfiani, Hutami Sri Ummiyati, T Mirawati Sudiro, Beti Ernawati Dewi

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue masih merupakan masalah utama di negara tropis. Sampai saat ini belum tersedia vaksin maupun terapi yang efektif untuk DBD. Oleh karena itu, penelitian untuk menemukan antivirus spesifik untuk virus dengue sangat diperlukan. Indonesia kaya akan tumbuhan herbal yang mungkin berpotensi memiliki aktivitas antivirus, diantaranya adalah Psidium guajava (Jambu biji), Euphorbia hirta (Patikan kerbau), Piper  bettle L. (Sirih), Carica papaya (Pepaya), Curcuma longa L. (Kunyit/turmeric), Phyllanthus niruri L. (Meniran), Andrographis paniculata (Sambiloto), dan Cymbopogon citratus (Serai). Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa beberapa tumbuhan herbal tersebut memiliki khasiat antibakteri, antivirus maupun keduanya. Namun, penelitian yang mengeksplorasi potensi beberapa herbal tersebut dalam melawan virus dengue masih terbatas.

Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah beberapa tanaman herbal tersebut berpotensi memiliki aktivitas antivirus terhadap virus dengue secara in vitro.

Metode: Ekstrak daun dari delapan tanaman herbal asli Indonesia diperoleh dari Solo, Jawa Tengah. Ekstrak kasar herbal tersebut diuji secara in vitro terhadap dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) strain NGC menggunakan cell line Huh7it-1. Aktivitas antivirus beberapa ekstrak kasar tersebut diskrining dengan dosis 20mg/mL. Ekstrak yang menunjukkan aktivitas penghambatan virus dengue, selanjutnya diuji dengan variasi dosis untuk menentukan CC50 and IC50.

Hasil: Dari uji penapisan awal terhadap 8 ekstrak tanaman herbal dengan dosis 20 mg/mL, Psidium guajava (Jambu biji) dan Carica papaya (Pepaya) memiliki efek sitotoksik sebesar 11,3% dan 2,5% dan mampu menghambat replikasi virus dengue masing-masing hingga 92,6% dan 89,5%. Dose dependent assay pada P. guajava menunjukkan CC50, IC50 dan indeks selektivitas berturut-turut sebesar 153,18 μg/mL, 7,2 μg/mL dan 21,28. Sedangkan C. papaya menunjukkan CC50, IC50 dan indeks selektivitas berturut-turut sebesar 244,76 μg/mL, 6,57 μg/mL dan 37,25.

Kesimpulan: Psidium guajava dan Carica papaya memiliki potensi aktivitas antivirus melawan virus dengue in vitro.

Kata kunci : Virus Dengue, ekstrak herbal, aktivitas antivirus, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya.

 

Background: Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) caused by dengue viruses is still a major problem in tropical countries. Until nowadays, there is no vaccine or effective therapy is available as yet. Thus research on discovering specific antiviral against dengue is needed.  Indonesia is rich in indigenous herbal plants, which may has potential antiviral activity, such as Psidium guajava (Jambu biji), Euphorbia hirta (Patikan kerbau), Piper  bettle L. (Sirih), Carica papaya (Pepaya), Curcuma longa L. (Kunyit/turmeric), Phyllanthus niruri L. (Meniran), Andrographis paniculata (Sambiloto), and Cymbopogon citratus (Serai). Previous studies showed that these plants, some have antibacterial properties, antiviral properties or both. However, there is only limited study of these plants against dengue virus.

Objective: The aim of this study is to know whether these plants have potential activity against dengue virus in vitro.

Method: Leave extracts of eight indigenous herbal plants as mentioned before were originated from Solo, Central Java. The crude extracts were tested in vitro against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) strain NGC using Huh7it-1 cell line. Those crude extracts were screened for antiviral activity using doses of 20 mg/mL. Candidates that showed inhibition activity were further tested in various doses to determine CC50 and IC50.

Result: From eight leave extracts tested with 20 mg/mL dose, Psidium guajava (Jambu biji) and Carica papaya (Pepaya) have cytotoxicity 11.3% and 2.5% respectively and   inhibited virus replication up to 92.6% and 89.5% respectively. Dose dependent assay of Psidium guajava showed CC50, IC50 and selectivity index 153.18 μg/mL, 7.2 μg/mL and 21.28 respectively. Whereas, C. papaya showed CC50, IC50 and selectivity index 244.76 μg/mL, 6.57 μg/mL and 37.25 respectively.

Conclusion: Psidium guajava and Carica papaya have potential antiviral activity against dengue virus in vitro.

Keywords: Dengue virus, natural extract, antiviral activity, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya

 


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